Attitudes and dating aggression a cognitive dissonance approach

Subjects listened to a tape of a man enthusiastically describing a tedious peg-turning task.Subjects were told that the man had been paid for his testimonial and another group was told that he was paid

Subjects listened to a tape of a man enthusiastically describing a tedious peg-turning task.Subjects were told that the man had been paid $20 for his testimonial and another group was told that he was paid $1.Afterward, participants' attitudes toward being an environmentalist/conservationist were re-measured.Those with strong initial/prior attitudes toward the environment were not really affected by the salient manipulation.

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Subjects listened to a tape of a man enthusiastically describing a tedious peg-turning task.

Subjects were told that the man had been paid $20 for his testimonial and another group was told that he was paid $1.

Afterward, participants' attitudes toward being an environmentalist/conservationist were re-measured.

Those with strong initial/prior attitudes toward the environment were not really affected by the salient manipulation.

Those with weak prior attitudes, however, were affected.

At the end, those in the pro-ecology condition ("Have you ever recycled?

.Afterward, participants' attitudes toward being an environmentalist/conservationist were re-measured.Those with strong initial/prior attitudes toward the environment were not really affected by the salient manipulation.

They also reported that cartoons viewed while they were smiling were more humorous than cartoons viewed while they were frowning.For example, it is found that corresponding emotions (including liking, disliking, happiness, anger, etc.) were reported following from their overt behaviors, which had been manipulated by the experimenters.These behaviors included making different facial expressions, gazes, and postures.Furthermore, participants scored higher on aggression during frown trials than during smile trials, and scored higher on elation, surgency, and social affection factors during smile trials than during frown ones.In other words, a person's facial expression can act as a cause of an emotional state, rather than an effect; instead of smiling because they feel happy, a person can make themselves feel happy by smiling.On the other hand, questions like "Do you always recycle?" bring to mind all the times an individual did not recycle something, emphasizing a lack of environmentalist behavior.In 1974, James Laird otot conducted two experiments on how changes in facial expression can trigger changes in emotion.Participants were asked to contract or relax various facial muscles, causing them to smile or frown without awareness of the nature of their expressions.In the end of the experiment, subjects inferred and reported their affections and attitudes from their practiced behaviors despite the fact that they were told previously to act that way.These findings are consistent with the James–Lange theory of emotion.

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