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Martinez de la Rosa, who has since been one of the ; leaders of the nation as well as of its literature, was shut up in Feiion on the coast of Barbary. 7 Alfonso the Second, however, who received the crown of Aragon in 1162, and wore it till 1196, is admitted by all to have been a Troubadour. To this sect — which, in some points, opposed the preten- sions of the See of Home, and was at last exterminated by a crusade under the Papal authority — belonged nearly all the contemporary Troubadours, whose poetry is full of their sufferings and remonstrances. Mm ya Uis males eatrauos Dc II me nlan^an fnrijoso, Vomc a huscar el repewo I)e lus train josos lianas. Muerta es toda naridad ; Todo hien en ti cs y» imicrto; — • Acojome para cl puerto, Fuyendo tu tomfieatad. On three other occasions, at least, Don Jorge is mentioned in the great Spanish historian as a person- age important in the affairs of his time ; but on yet a fourth, — that of the death of his father, Rodrigo, — the words of Mariana are so beautiful and apt, that I trans cribe them in the original .( “ Su ^Tiijo D. va8 muy elegantes, en quo hay virtu- / des poeticas y ricas esmaltes dc ingc- nio, y sentencias groves, a manera de endccha, llord la muerte dc su padre.” Lib. Both the sons of the first Count of Aranda, Miguel and Pedro, were lovers of letters ; but Pedro only was imbued with a poetical spirit beyond that of his age, and emancipated from its affectations and follies.Moratin was languishing in Paris, while his comedies were applauded to the very echo by his enemies at home. Of him we still possess a few not inelegant cobias, or stanzas, address- ed to his lady, which are curious from the circumstance that they constitute the oldest poem in the modem dia- lects of Spain, whose author is known to us ; and one that is probably as old, or nearly as old, as any of the anonymous poetry of Castile and the North. As to the word cobias, I cannot but think — notwithstanding all the refined discussions about it in Ravnouard, (Tom. 9 10 In their great distress, the principal ally of the Albigenses and Troubadours was Peter the Second of Aragon, who, in 1213, perished nobly fighting in their cause at the dis- astrous battle of Murct. brother of Pero Fernandez, — each poem in about seventy or eighty octave stanzas, of arte mayor, but neither of them as good as the ‘ 4 Vanity of Life.” Gcrdnimo also translated the Sixth Satire of Juvenal into capias dc arte mayor , and published it at Valladolid in 1510, in 4to. His poems, which he published in 1513, are dedicated to his widowed mother, and arc partly religious and partly secular.He assisted me, too, in collecting the books I needed; — never an easy task where bookselling, in the sense elsewhere given to the word, was unknown, and where the Inquisition and the confessional had often made what was most desirable most rare. When the earth is clad with springing grass, W’hcn the trees with flowers are clad ; When the birds arc building up their nests, W r hcn the nightingale sings sad ; When the stormy sea is hushed and still, And the sailors spread their sail ; When the rose and lily lift their heads, And with fragrance fill the gale ; When, burdened with the coming heat, Men cast their cloaks aside, And turn themselves to the cooling shade, From the sultry sun to hide ; Digitized by Google 412 HISTORY OF SPANISH LITERATURE [Pxriod 1 .But Don Jose knew the lurking- places where such books and their owners were to be sought ; and to him I am indebted for the foundation of a collection in Spanish literature, which, without help like his, I should have failed to make. When no hour like that of night is sweet, Save tho gentle twilight hour ; — In a tempting, gracious time like this, I felt love’s earliest power.Digitized by Google Digitized by Google Digitized by Google Digitized by Google Digitized by Google Digitized by Google HISTORY or SPANISH LITERATURE. Such books as I wanted were then, it is true, less valued in Spain than they are now, but it was chiefly because the country was in a depressed and unnatural state ; and, if its men of letters were more than commonly at leisure to gratify the curiosity of a stranger, their number had been materially dimin- ished by political persecution, and intercourse with them was difficult because they had so little connec- tion with each other, and were so much shut out from the world around them. 14 13 “Comedia a noticia” he call B them, in the Address to the Reader, and “ comedia k fantasia ’* ; and explains the first to be “ de cosa nota y vista en realidad, ” illustrating the remark by his plays on recruiting and on the riotous life of a cardinal’s servants. Z Digitized by Google 302 HISTORY OF SPANISH LITERATURE. What is more singular, this drama approaches to a fulfilment of the requisitions of the unities, for it has but one proper action, which is the marriage of Febea ; it does not extend beyond the period of twenty-four hours ; and the whole passes in the street before the house of the lady, unless, indeed, the fifth act passes within the house, which is doubtful . But it is only necessary to road what its friends have said in defence of this position, to be satisfied that it is untenable. The life of its author is in Zurita, “ Anales de Aragon ” (Lib. Tlie flowing robes, inwrought with gold, The daucera wore ? Long- fellow's beautiful translation of the Co- plas, first printed, Boston, 1833, 12mo, and often since. In some respects, the time of my visit was favorable to the purposes for which I made it; in others, it was not. It has even the “Gracioso,” or Droll Servant, who makes love to the heroine’s maid ; a character which is also found in Na- harro’s “ Serafina,” but which Lope de Vega above a century afterwards claimed as if invented by himself . Bid me do my best, In humble service of my love to thee ; So shalt thou put me to the proof, and know If what I say accord with what 1 feel. Were my desire to bid thee sene quite clear, Perchance thy oilers would not be so prompt. 90 It is singular, however, that a very severe passage on the Pope and the clergy' at Koine, in the “ Jacinta,” wus not struck out, ed. Inigo Loprz de Mendoza srgundo Du- those great houses were accounted qruc del Infant ado.” So that the rep- public representations, rose n tat ions in the halls and chapels of vol. Sec Torres Amat, Prologo to “ Merno- rias dc lo® Eseritores Catalanos, ” and elsewhere. It be- gins— Per manta* gutau m’ e s datz Joys e deport c so Ulz. Where are the gentle knights, that came To kneel, and breatlie love's ardent flame, Low at their feet 7 Where is the eong of the Troubadour 7 Where are the lute and gay tambour They loved of yore 7 Where is the maxy dance of old.
In the year eighteen hundred and eighteen I trav- elled through a large part of Spain, and spent several months in Madrid. But the rude and buffoon shepherds, whose dialogue fills so much of the slight and poor action, show plainly that he was neither un- acquainted with Enzina and Vicente, nor unwilling to imitate them; while the rest of the drama — the part that is supposed to contain historical facts — is, as we have seen, still worse. And Latin and Italian loo ; — So take care lest they trouble you. 21 As the question, whether Nahar- ro’s plays were acted in Italy or not, has been angrily discussed between Lainpillas (Ensayo, Madrid, 1789, 4to, Tom. But though men like Juan de la Enzina, Gil Vi- cente, and Naharro had turned their thoughts towards dramatic composition, they seem to have had no idea of founding a popular national drama. This re- markable family, whose power w*as now so fast stretch- ing up to the North, possessed, at different times, dur- ing nearly three centuries, different portions of territory on both sides of the Pyrenees, generally maintaining a control over a large part of the Northeast of Spain and of the South of France. 4to,) and especially in the curious doc- uments and notes in Tom. 6 The character of the old Provencal poetry is the same on both sides of the Pyrenees. Where are the courtly gallantries 7 The dmls of love and high emprise, In battle done 7 Tourney and joust, that charmed the eye, And scarf, and gorgeous panoply, And nodding plume, — What were they twit a pageant scene?The natural result of such a long-continued interest in Spanish literature, and of so many pleasant induce- ments to study it, has been — I speak in a spirit of extenuation and self-defence — a book. The other is entitled “ The Twelve Triumphs of the Twelve Apostles,” which, as we are informed, with the same accuracy and in the same way, was completed on the 14th of February, 1518; again a poem formidable for its length, since it fills above a thousand stanzas of nine lines each. There is a contem- porary Spanish book, with a title some- thing resembling that of the Retablo de la Vida de Christo del Cartuxano ; — I mean the “ Vita Christi Cartuxano,” which is a translation of the “Vita Christi ” of Ludolphus of Saxony, a Carthusian monk who died about 1370, made into Castilian by Ambrosio Mon- tesino, and first published at Seville, in 1502. Digitized by Google 416 HISTORY OF SPANISH LITERATURE. The dialogue itself is represented as having passed chiefly in a hall of the palace, and in presence of sev- eral of the nobles of the court ; but it was not written till after the death of the Constable, in 1 453 ; that event being alluded to in it.In the interval between my two residences in Europe I delivered lec- tures upon its principal topics to successive classes in Harvard College ; and, on my return home from the second, I endeavoured to arrange these lectures for • publication. 3 lm Origin in Spain 4 Its earliest Appearance there . It is partly an allegory, but wholly religious in its character, and is composed with more care than any thing else its author wrote. It is, in fact, a Life of Christ, compiled out of the Evangelists, with ample commentaries and reflections from the Fathers of the Church, — the whole filling four folio volumes, — and in the version of Montcsino it appears in a grave, pure Castilian prose. It is plainly an imitation of the treatise of Boethius “ On the Consolation of Phi- losophy,” then a favorite classic ; but it is more spirited and effective than its model.Melendez Valdes, the first Spanish poet of the age, had just died in misery on the unfriendly soil of France. The parody of the servants, Boreas and Doresta, on the passion of the hero and heroine is spirited ; and in the first scene between them we have the following dialogue, which might be trans- ferred with effect to many a play of Calderon : — Boreas. Felix Torres Amat, Bishop of Astorga, etc., (Barcelona, 183(5, Hvoj J is, however, an indispensable book for the history of the literature of Catalo- nia ; for its author, descended from one of the old and distinguished families of the country, and nephew of tho learned Archbishop Amat, who died in 1824, has devoted much of his life and of his ample means to collect materials for it. In Catalonia, as well as in its native home, it belonged much to the court ; and the highest in rank and power are the earliest and foremost on its lists. In the beginning of the next century, external cir- cumstances imparted a great impulse to this spirit in Aragon. mundo malirn\ Llcuo du null y dolor, Que me vo tras el dul^or I»el bien cterno divino. Y la sinrpe Mia on el prado De tu tan hi Iso camino. It is seldom Hi»- After the forty stanzas to which the tory goes out of its bloody course to preceding lines belong, follow two render such a tribute to Poetry, and more poems, the first entitled 44 The Btill more seldom that it does it so Complaint of Faith,” partly by Diego gracefully.Quintana, in many respects the heir to his honors, was confined in the fortress of Pamplona. O, would to heaven, my lady dear, That, at the instant 1 first looked on thee, Thy love had equalled mine ! It contains more mistakes than it should ; but a great deal of its in- formation can be. Thus, both the princes who first wore the united crowns of Barce- lona and Provence, and who reigned from 1113 to 1162, are often set down as Limousin or Provencal poets, though with slight claims to the honor, since not a verse has been published that can be attributed to ei- ther of them. Ill and note,) — that it was quite synony- mous with the Spanish capias, and may, for all common purposes, be translated by our English stanzas , or even sometimes by couplets. From 1209 to 1229, the shameful war which gave birth to the Inquisition was carried on with ex- traordinary cruelty and fury against the Albigenses ; a religious sect in Provence accused of heresy, but per- secuted rather by an implacable political ambition. Quedate con lus entmfios, Maguera te dexo tarde, Qnc tc segui de cubarde Fasta mis poalrcros anos. Ihindfl cl hennnoo al hermano No guanfo fe ni ven Ud. 19, noticing his death, says, “ He died in his best years,” — “cn lo mejor de su edad ” ; but we do not know how old he was. The old ballad on Jorge dc Burgos and partly by Pero Fenian- Manrique is in Fuentes, Libro de loo dez de Villegas, and the second, a Quarenta Cantos, Alcala, 1587, 12mo, free translation of the Tenth Satire of p. , Juvenal, by Gerdnimo de Villegas, ' * Digitized by Google Cmr. 411 the state and in the army, and honored for its success in letters. The first of the name who rose to eminence was Lope, created Count of Aranda in 1488; the last was Geronimo dc Urrea, who must be noticed hereafter as the translator of Ariosto, and as the author of a treatise on Military Honor, which was published in 1566.— certainly in his peculiar department among Digitized by Google PREFACE IX the most eminent scholars now living, and one to whose familiarity with whatever regards the literature of his own country, the frequent references in my notes bear a testimony not to be mistaken. Quando aves hacen nidus Y canlan lew rviisenores; Ouando cn la mar sosegada K'ltran Ins navegadorea, Quandn las lirios v rosas Nos dan buenos oloros ; Y qunndo toda la cente, j Ocupados do calores, V Yan aliviando las mpas, Y buscando loa frescores ; Do son las meiores oraa I as noche-s y loa alburns En eslo tiempo quo digo, Co me n ta run inis atnorea. This we have already seen when speaking of the contemporary chronicles, and of Perez de Guzman and the author of the “ Celestina.” In other cases, we observe its advancement in an inferior degree, but, encumbered as they are with more or less of the bad taste and pedantry of the time, they still deserve no- tice, because they were so much valued in their own age.With the former of these gentlemen I have been inconstant communication for many years, and have received from him valuable contributions of books and manuscripts collected in Spain, England, and France for my library. De una damn quo yo vl, Dama de tan ton primores, De quaiitos ea conocida De Lantos tieuc loores : Su graeia por hermosura Tiene lantos serridores, Quanto yo por desdichado Ten go penas y dot ores : Domic so me otorga muerte Y *e me niegau farores. It is Juan de Padilla, commonly called “ El Cartuxano,” or The Carthusian, because he chose thus modestly to conceal his own name, and announce himself only as a monk of Santa Maria de las Cuevas in Seville. Regarded from this point of view, one of the most prominent prose-writers of the century was Juan de Luccna ; a personage distinguished both as a private counsellor of John the Second and as that monarch's foreign ambassador.Washington Irving, equally honored on both sides of the Atlantic, but especially cherished by- Spaniards for the enduring monument he has erected to the history of their early adventures, and for the charming fictions, whose scene he has laid in their romantic country; — these fortunate circumstances nat- urally opened to me whatever facilities for collecting books could be afforded by the kindness of persons in places so distinguished, or by their desire to spread among their countrymen at home a literature they knew so well and loved so much. Rich, formerly a Consul of the United States in Spain; the same bibliographer to whom Mr. Prescott have avowed sim- ilar obligations, and to whose personal regard I owe hardly less than I do to his extraordinary knowledge of rare and curious books, and his extraordinary suc- cess in collecting them. Still, still, these bitterest sweets of life I never will ask to forget ; For the lover’s truest glory is fonnd When unshaken his fate is met.But to two other persons, not unconnected with these statesmen and men of letters, it is no less my duty and my pleasure to make known my obligations. The other is Don Pascual de (iayangos, Professor of Arabic in the University of Madrid. 13 The last person who wrote a poem of any consider- able length, and yet is properly to be included within the old school, is one Who, by his imitations of Dante, reminds us of the beginnings of that school in the days ,3 X‘ancionero do las Obras de Don [ Petfro Manuel dc Urrea, Logrofio, fol., I 1513, apud Ig. quibusdam Hispanorum Rarioribus, Cfi Bsaraugus UE,” 1794, 4to, pp. Ea cl plariente Yerano, IV, Mon 1cm dias mayorw, Acabnnm mis placeres. Quandt) la tierra da yerva Y los arbolci dan /lores. The reign of Henry the Fourth was more favorable to the advancement of prose composition than that of John the Second.It was, in fact, one of the darkest periods of the ■* reign of Ferdinand the Seventh, when the desponding seemed to think that the eclipse was not only total, Digitized by Google VI PREFACE but “ beyond all hope of day.” The absolute power of the monarch had been as yet nowhere publicly questioned; and his government, which had revived the Inquisition and was not wanting in its spirit, had, from the first, silenced the press, and, wherever its influence extended, now threatened the extinction of all generous culture. His comrdias are extremely different in length ; one of them extending to about twenty-six hundred lines, which would be very long, if represented, and another hardly reaching twelve hundred. 14 In the Dedication of “ La Fran- ce BUln'* in his Comedias, Tom. 15 The whole, too, is founded on the national manners, and preserves the national costume and character. The simple fact, that the literature in question existed a full century in Provence before there is any pretence to claim its existence in Catalonia, is decisive of the contro- versy, if there really be a controversy about the matter. II.) ; but the few literary notices needed of him are best found in TLatassa, “ Dibliotcca f Antigua de los Escritores Aragonc- Digitized by Google 312 HISTORY OF SPANISH LITERATURE. who mourned his patron’s death in verse, — all three famous Troubadours in their time, and all three hon- ored and favored at Barcelona. These two stanzas, as well as the one in the text, are from Mr. They may be com- i »red with a passage in the verses on Edward IV. 240,) in which that prince is made to say, as if speaking from his grave, — 11 W'horo i« now my conquest and victory 7 Where i» my riche* and royall array 7 Where brn thy Blorm To hide my weary head.Hardly four years had elapsed since the old order of things had been restored at Madrid, and already most of the leading men of letters, whose home was naturally in the capital, were in prison or in exile. The best parts, in general, are the humorous ; but there arc graceful pas- sages between the lovers, and touching passages between the brother and sister. Thc/“ Mcmorias para ayudar a for mar un Diccionario Critico de los Autorcs Catalanos,” etc., \ by D. 311 graceful and devoted to love; but sometimes it be- comes involved in the politics of the time, and some- times it runs into a severe and unbecoming satire. 5 There can be no doubt, therefore, that a Provencal spirit was already established and spreading in that part of Spain before the end of the twelfth century. attributed to Skelton, and found in the “ Mirror for Magistrates,” (London, 1815, 4to, Tom. I add the original, for the sake of il flowing sweetness and power : — Quedate.