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In the second act, Hymeneo enters with his sonants and musicians, and they sing a cancion which reminds us of the sonnet in Molicre’s “ Misantrope," and a vi- llancico which is but little better. But the number of feet in each of his lines is not always exact, nor are the rhymes always good, though, on the whole, a harmonious result is generally produced. 307 cm nations lasted, Provence was disturbed chiefly by the Visigoths, who soon passed onward to Spain, leav- ing few traces of their character behind them, and by the Burgundians, the mildest of all the Teutonic in- vaders, who did not reach the South of France till they had been long resident in Italy, and, when they came, established themselves at once as the permanent mas- ters of that tempting country. Two of the treatises of Alonso were printed ; — the “ Oracional,” or Book of Devo- tion, mentioned in the text as written for Perez de Guzman, which appear- ed at Murcia in 1187, and the “Doc- trinal de Cavalleros,” which appear- ed the same year at Burgos. Digitized by Google 400 HISTORY OF SPANISH LITERATURE. The occupations of Perez de Guzman, in his retire- ment on his estates at Batras, where he passed the latter part of his life, and where he died, about 1470, were suited to his own character and to the spirit of his age. 298, 340-342; and at the end of Ochoa’s “ Mimas Incditas de Don Ifiigo Lopez de Mendoza,” Paris, 1844, 8vo, pp. Sometimes lie discovers a spirit in advance of 17 The “Generaciones y Semblan- zas ’’ first appeared in 1512, as part of a rifadmento in Spanish of Giovanni Co- lonna's “ Mare Jlistoriarum, M which may have been the work of Perez de Guzman. 137, after long accounts of Trojans, Greeks, Romans, Fathers of the Church, and others, taken from Colonna. But he oftencr discovers a willingness to rebuke its vices, as w r hen, discussing the character of Gonzalo Nuflez de Guzman, he turns aside from his subject and says solemnly, — “And no doubt it is a noble thing and worthy of praise to preserve the memory of noble families and of the services they have rendered to their kings and to the commonwealth ; but here, in Castile, this is now held of small account. [Period I Manrique a confirmation of all the honors and rights of which their father had been wrongfully deprived. The same tone is heard, though somewhat softened, when he touches on the days of his youth and of the court of John the Second, already passed away ; and it is felt the more deeply, because the festive scenes he describes come into such strong contrast with the dark and solemn thoughts to which they lead him.

Thus ends the first act, which might furnish materials for many a Spanish comedy of the seventeenth century. The “ Aquilana ” is in tjuarte- ta Sy connected in the same way ; and so on. 15 15 The longest extracts from the works of this remarkable family of Jews, and the best accounts of them, arc to be found in Castro, 11 Biblioteca Espafiola,” (Tom. 235, etc.,) and Amador de los Rios, “ Estudios sobre los Judiosde Espana” (Madrid, 1848, 8vo, pp. Much of their poetry, which is found in the Cancioneros Generates, is amatory, and is as good as the poetry of those old collections generally is. 22, 26, 64.) Both are curious; but much of the last is taken from the “ Partidas ” of Alfonso the Wise. But others are long and elaborate, like that of the Infante Don Fer- dinand. xi.,) that the two very important chapters at the end of the Generaciones y Semblanzas are not the work of Fenian Perez de Guz- man is, I think, sufficiently answered by the editor of the Chronicle of' Al- varo de Luna, Madrid, 1784, 4to, Pr6- logo, p. HH # Digitized by Google 402 HISTORY OF SPANISH LITERATURE. his age, such as he shows when he defends the newly converted Jews from the cruel suspicions with which they were then persecuted. country had been put in pledge a year before at Tor- dcsillas — came into the king's presence, and, in a solemn scene well described by the chronicler of John the Second, obtained for the children of the deceased 1 Gcncracioncs, etc., c. Digitized by Google 404 HISTORY OF SPANISH LITERATURE. Thither the mighty torrents stray, Thither the brook pursues its way, And tinkling rill. Side by side The poor man and the son of pride Lie calm and still.

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In the interval between my two residences in Europe I delivered lec- tures upon its principal topics to successive classes in Harvard College ; and, on my return home from the second, I endeavoured to arrange these lectures for • publication. 3 lm Origin in Spain 4 Its earliest Appearance there . It is partly an allegory, but wholly religious in its character, and is composed with more care than any thing else its author wrote. It is, in fact, a Life of Christ, compiled out of the Evangelists, with ample commentaries and reflections from the Fathers of the Church, — the whole filling four folio volumes, — and in the version of Montcsino it appears in a grave, pure Castilian prose. It is plainly an imitation of the treatise of Boethius “ On the Consolation of Phi- losophy,” then a favorite classic ; but it is more spirited and effective than its model.

Washington Irving, equally honored on both sides of the Atlantic, but especially cherished by- Spaniards for the enduring monument he has erected to the history of their early adventures, and for the charming fictions, whose scene he has laid in their romantic country; — these fortunate circumstances nat- urally opened to me whatever facilities for collecting books could be afforded by the kindness of persons in places so distinguished, or by their desire to spread among their countrymen at home a literature they knew so well and loved so much. Rich, formerly a Consul of the United States in Spain; the same bibliographer to whom Mr. Prescott have avowed sim- ilar obligations, and to whose personal regard I owe hardly less than I do to his extraordinary knowledge of rare and curious books, and his extraordinary suc- cess in collecting them. Still, still, these bitterest sweets of life I never will ask to forget ; For the lover’s truest glory is fonnd When unshaken his fate is met.

But to two other persons, not unconnected with these statesmen and men of letters, it is no less my duty and my pleasure to make known my obligations. The other is Don Pascual de (iayangos, Professor of Arabic in the University of Madrid. 13 The last person who wrote a poem of any consider- able length, and yet is properly to be included within the old school, is one Who, by his imitations of Dante, reminds us of the beginnings of that school in the days ,3 X‘ancionero do las Obras de Don [ Petfro Manuel dc Urrea, Logrofio, fol., I 1513, apud Ig. quibusdam Hispanorum Rarioribus, Cfi Bsaraugus UE,” 1794, 4to, pp. Ea cl plariente Yerano, IV, Mon 1cm dias mayorw, Acabnnm mis placeres. Quandt) la tierra da yerva Y los arbolci dan /lores. The reign of Henry the Fourth was more favorable to the advancement of prose composition than that of John the Second.

The lady does not deny her brother's right, but enters into a long discussion with him about it, part of which is touching and effective, hut most of it very tedious ; in the midst of all which Hymeneo presents himself, and after explaining who he is and what are his intentions, and especially after admitting, that, under the circum- stances of the case, the Marquis might justly have Digitized by Google Chap. The two' pieces are very different, and mark the ex- tremes of the various experiments Naharro tried in order to produce a dramatic effect. 15 The “ Aquilana,” absurd as its story is, approaches, perhaps, even nearer to absolute regularity in its form. Well, by my faith, it grieves ray heart to see That thou so mortal art. Fadrique dc Toledo, Enri * quez Alrnirante de Castilla , y & Von be said for the other languages that are used? This family became extinct, in the male branch, in 1092; and in 1113, the crown of Provence was transferred, by the marriage of its heir, to Raymond Berenger, the third Count of Barcelona. 4 At the very commencement of the twelfth century, therefore, we may fairly consider a Provencal refinement to have been introduced into the northeastern comer of Spain ; and it is worth notice, that this is just about the period when, as we have already seen, the ultimately national school of poetry began to show itself in quite the oppo- site corner of the Peninsula, amidst the mountains of Biscay and Asturias. most distinguished of its members gave the widest ex- tent to its empire by broad conquests from the Moors; but later the power of the kings of Aragon became gradually circumscribed, and their territory diminished, by marriages, successions, and military disasters. But its great charm is to be sought in a beautiful simplicity, which, belonging to no age, is the seal of genius in all.

The fourth, however, brings the hero and lover into the lady's house, leaving his attendants in the street, who confess their cowardice to one an- other, and agree to riui away, if the Marquis appears. They escape, but leave a cloak, which betrays who they are, and the Marquis remains undisputed master of the ground at the end of the act. The Marquis, of- fended in the nicest point of Castilian honor, — the very point on which the plots of so many later Spanish dra- mas turn, — resolves at once to put both of the guilty parties to death, though their offence is no greater than that of having been secretly in the same house together. 301 killed his sister, the whole is arranged for a double wedding of masters and servants, and closes with a spirited villancico in honor of Love and his victories. Your answers are so sharp, They pierce my very bowels through and through. 23 But it is not likely that any of his plays were acted, except in the same way with Vicente’s and Enzina's ; that is, before a moderate num- ber of persons in some great man’s house , 34 at Naples, 1813, 8vo, Tom. 23 ** Las mas dcstas obrillas anda- van ya fuera de mi obediencia y vo- luntad.” 83 In the opening of the Introyio to the “ Trofea.” 34 I am quite aware, that, in the important passage already cited from Mendez Silva, on the first acting of plays in 1492, we have the words, “ Afio de 1492 comenzaron en Cas- tilla las compafiias k representar nub/i- cammtc comcdias de Juan de la Enzi- na ” ; but what the word nublicamoitc was intended to mean is shown by the words that follow : M festejando con cllas a V. Thus things continued under twelve princes of the Burgundian race, who make little show in the wars of their times, but who seem to have governed their states with a moderation and gentleness not to have been expected amidst the general disturbance of the world. 309 Barcelona and Marseilles; and if the Provencals had somewhat more of gentleness and culture, the Catalo- nians, from the share they had taken in the Moorish wars, possessed a more strongly marked character, and one developed in more manly proportions. Digitized by Google 310 HISTORY OF SPANISH LITERATURE [Pmion I. After these, the two poems of Perez de Guz- man that make most pretensions from their length are an allegory on the Four Cardinal Virtues, in sixty-tliree stanzas, and another on the Seven Deadly Sins and the Seven Works of Mercy, in a hundred. 5 The longest of his works, now known to exist, is an allegorical poem of twelve hundred lines on the death of his uncle, the Marquis of Santillana, in which the Seven Cardinal Virtues, together with Poetry and 2 Chn Snica de Don Juan el II., Afio 1437, c. Its versification, too, is excellent; free and flowing, with occasionally an antique air and turn, that are true to the character of the age that produced it,- and in- crease its picturcsquencss and effect.

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