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The field of science which studies the human fossil record is known as paleoanthropology.

It is the intersection of the disciplines of paleontology (the study of ancient lifeforms) and anthropology (the study of humans).

He lives near Jerusalem with his wife and five children, where he works as a senior lecturer for Aish Jerusalem.

is "a comprehensive, thoughtful and highly educational survey of Jewish history.” - Sir Martin Gilbert In one volume, Crash Course in Jewish History explores the 4,000 years of Jewish existence while answering the great questions: Why have the Jewish people been so unique, so impactful, yet so hated and so relentlessly persecuted?

The time of the split between humans and living apes used to be thought to have occurred 15 to 20 million years ago, or even up to 30 or 40 million years ago.

This species was named Australopithecus ramidus in September 1994 (White et al.Crash Course in Jewish History is not only comprehensive and readable, it is also entertaining and enlightening.Sahelanthropus tchadensis Orrorin tugenensis Ardipithecus ramidus Australopithecus anamensis Australopithecus afarensis Kenyanthropus platyops Australopithecus africanus Australopithecus garhi Australopithecus sediba Australopithecus aethiopicus Australopithecus robustus Australopithecus boisei Homo habilis Homo georgicus Homo erectus Homo ergaster Homo antecessor Homo heidelbergensis Homo neanderthalensis Homo floresiensis Homo sapiens sapiens Some scientists use a broader definition of Hominidae which includes the great apes, and instead call the group I am discussing "hominins".Hominids are included in the superfamily of all apes, the Hominoidea, the members of which are called hominoids.Although the hominid fossil record is far from complete, and the evidence is often fragmentary, there is enough to give a good outline of the evolutionary history of humans.A number of fragmentary fossils discovered between 19, and dating from 5.2 to 5.8 million years old, were originally assigned to a new subspecies, Ardipithecus ramidus kadabba (Haile-Selassie 2001), and later to a new species, Ardipithecus kadabba (Haile-Selassie et al. One of these fossils is a toe bone belonging to a bipedal creature, but is a few hundred thousand years younger than the rest of the fossils and so its identification with kadabba is not as firm as the other fossils.This species was named in August 1995 (Leakey et al. The material consists of 9 fossils, mostly found in 1994, from Kanapoi in Kenya, and 12 fossils, mostly teeth found in 1988, from Allia Bay in Kenya (Leakey et al. Anamensis existed between 4.2 and 3.9 million years ago, and has a mixture of primitive features in the skull, and advanced features in the body.This species was named in July 2002 from fossils discovered in Chad in Central Africa (Brunet et al. It is the oldest known hominid or near-hominid species, dated at between 6 and 7 million years old.This species is known from a nearly complete cranium nicknamed Toumai, and a number of fragmentary lower jaws and teeth. tchadensis has many primitive apelike features, such as the small brainsize, along with others, such as the brow ridges and small canine teeth, which are characteristic of later hominids.The skull has a very small brain size of approximately 350 cc. This mixture, along with the fact that it comes from around the time when the hominids are thought to have diverged from chimpanzees, suggests it is close to the common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees.This species was named in July 2001 from fossils discovered in western Kenya (Senut et al. The fossils include fragmentary arm and thigh bones, lower jaws, and teeth and were discovered in deposits that are about 6 million years old.

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